Born: April 21, 1729 Stettin, Prussia (today Szczecin, Poland) Died: November 6, 1796 Tsarskoye Selo (today Pushkin, Russia) German-produced Russian empress
The new Russian empress Catherine II, also known as Catherine the nice, reigned off 1762 to help you 1796. She offered the fresh new Russian Empire, improved administration, and you may energetically pursued the policy out of Westernization (the process of changing to west ideas and traditions). Lower than the lady rule Russia increased solid and rivaled the favorable energies out of European countries and you can China.
Catherine II was born Sophia Augusta Frederica from the German area out of Stettin, Prussia (today Szczecin, Poland), with the April 21, 1729. She is this new daughter from Prince Religious August of Anhalt-Zerbst and you can Princess Johanna E out of Holstein-Gottorp. Catherine’s parents, have been hoping for a son, didn’t tell you a great deal of love towards the girl. As a child, Catherine was next to the lady governess Babette, who Catherine also known as, “the sort of governess most of the kid must have.” Catherine’s studies highlighted the new victims thought right for starters of the lady class: faith (Lutheranism), history, French, German, and you can music.
When Catherine try ten, she went to Russia from the invitation of Empress Age to meet the heir towards throne, the newest Grand Duke Peter (1728–1762), an enthusiastic younger and you can disagreeable youthfulness of sixteen. After Catherine changed into the fresh new Russian Orthodox believe, she therefore the younger Huge Duke had been married inside 1745.
Peter try soon disloyal so you can Catherine, and just after a period of time she turned into unfaithful to him. If or not Peter is the father regarding Paul and you can Anna, the two students filed since their young ones, remains a question.
Yet not, the woman loveless matrimony didn’t overshadow the girl rational and you will political welfare. A-sharp-witted and cultured girl, she discover extensively, particularly in French. She appreciated books, plays, and you may verse but is actually like seeking this new writings of big figures of French Enlightenment (a time period of cultural and you may idealistic sales inside France), for example Diderot (1713–1784), Voltaire (1694–1778), and you will Montesquieu (1689–1755).
Rise to electricity
Catherine is bold also intelligent and you can seemed toward the full time she’d code Russia. Instead of her partner, the brand new German-produced Catherine took care showing their dedication to Russia and you can the fresh new Russian Orthodox (another department of your own Christian trust) faith. That it commitment, she think, manage secure the girl a beneficial rightful place on the throne and you will winnings help of Russian anybody.
Whenever Empress Elizabeth passed away into the December 25, 1761, Peter was stated Emperor Peter III, and you can Catherine became empress. Not absolutely all weeks immediately following coming to the latest throne, Peter got authored of numerous enemies inside government, this new army, as well as the church. In the future there was a land in order to overthrow him, set his eight-year-old kid Paul toward throne, and identity Catherine because regent (short term ruler) through to the child is old enough to help you laws on his own. However, people mixed up in patch had underestimated Catherine’s ambition. They considered that through getting eliminate Peter, Catherine create become more regarding a background figure. She lined up to own a healthier character for by herself, however. With the June twenty-eight, 1762, by using her partner Gregory Orlov, she rallied new troops from St. Petersburg so you’re able to her help and you will declared herself Catherine II, really the only leader regarding Russia. She got Peter detained and you can necessary him so you’re able to abdicate, otherwise step down of, fuel. Once his arrest he had been slain into the a good brawl with his captors.
Very early leadership (1762–1764)
Catherine got ambitious arrangements out of one another domestic and you will overseas products. But in the basic numerous years of the girl leadership this lady notice is directed toward securing the woman standing. She realized that enough important individuals believed her an effective usurper, or a person who caught another’s electricity illegally. It viewed the woman kid, Paul, because rightful ruler. The lady response to this case were to grab all the possible opportunity to win prefer one of several nobility and military. At the same time she struck sharply within those who found to restore this lady that have Paul.